Baptist Monophonic and Heterophonic Hymnody in Southern Appalachia

Baptist Monophonic and Heterophonic Hymnody in Southern Appalachia
by William H. Tallmadge
Source: Anuario Interamericano de Investigacion Musical, Vol. 11 (1975), pp. 106-136

William Tallmadge
Berea College

This study concerns ornamented monophonic, heterophonic, and, to a certain extent, the polyphonic hymnody sung in the mountain areas of eastern Kentucky, western North Carolina, and western Virginia by Regular, Primitive, and United Baptists.
The technique of precenting, or lining-out the psalms, initiated in England by the Westminster Assembly in 1644, was transferred to the Colonies within a few years.[2]

Toward the end of the century the practice of precenting was applied to the singing of hymns both in England and the
Colonies. In America the practice, while widespread among black singers, continues as a marginal survival among white singers in the areas previously mentioned, having generally died out elsewhere shortly after the middle of the nineteenth century. The lining procedure is described further on, but a comprehensive description may be found in Gilbert Chase's America's  Music.[3]

George Pullen Jackson thought the style had died out among the whites by 1843.[4] He was apparently unaware that George Hood had written in 1846: "Yet to this day it (lining-out) prevails over three-fourths of the territory of the United States."'
It would certainly seem worthwhile to take a careful look at a musical style which, if Hood is correct, prevailed in this country for over half of its existence as a colony and a nation.

In England in the 17th century Baptists were divided into two bodies: the non-singing General Baptists whose theology resembled that of the Mennonites and Quakers, and the Calvinistic Particular Baptists whose congregations sang the psalms. Of the dissenting, independent and nonconforming denominations, the Particular Baptists were among the first to begin hymn singing. This happened in the congregation of Particular Baptists of Southwark, whose pastor was Benjamin Keach. Keach believed that congregational song was an ordinance of Christ, and, beginning in 1673, he successfully initiated the practice of hymn singing in his own church, influencing at the same time other Particular Baptist churches to do the same.[6] Keach printed some of his hymns in 1676 and three hundred of them as Spiritual Melody in 1691.[7]

Switching our attention to the Colonies, we find the same division of Baptists into two bodies: the non-singing General Baptists, who were a declining branch, and the psalm-singing Particular Baptists. "The influence of Keach was felt directly in America through the coming of his son, Elias, to Philadelphia in about 1690, where he became pastor of the Lower Dublin Church."[8]

We may certainly assume that Elias attempted to introduce hymnody into his church because after his return to England in 1696 he issued his own hymn book with the rather ornate title: A Banquetting-House Full of Spiritual Delights: or Hymns and Spiritual Songs on Several Occasions. At that time he was the minister of a parish at Curriers-Hall, London.[9] The following year, 1697, Elias and Benjamin Keach published a Ccnfession, one article of which begins:

We believe that singing the praises of God is a holy ordinance of Christ, . . . it being enjoined on the churches of Christ to sing psalms, hymns and spiritual songs; and that the whole church, in their public assemblies (as well as private Christians), ought to sing God's praises according to the best light they have received. [10]  Louis Benson ascribed the initiation of singing in Baptist churches in the Colonies to the "influence of a body of Welsh Baptists settled on the Welsh Tract in Delaware. They adopted in 1716 an English Confession of Faith of 1689, but with the addition of the 1697 confession of Benjamin and Elias Keach."[11]

Immigration soon made Philadelphia a Baptist center, and in 1742 the Philadelphia Association, a group of Particular Baptists, adopted as their own the English 1689 confession with the addition of the 1697 Keach confession on singing.[12]

The Philadelphia Association expanded into the South in the eighteenth century, and present-day Regular Baptists in southern Appalachia have generally adopted the Philadelphia confession. It is fortuitous that when the revivalistic fires of the Great Awakening began to burn and generate a need for a new evangelical expression which went beyond the spirit of the psalms the great body of Watts' hymns was at hand. Once the dam was broken by Watts a flood-tide of hymn books followed. Between 1739 and 1800 one hundred and eighty-six editions of tuneless hymnbooks were published in America.[13]

Robert H. Young in his unpublished doctoral dissertation, "The History of Baptist Hymnody in England from 1612 to 1800" (1959), described the period from 1760 to 1800 as "the golden age of Baptist hymnists."[14]  Young assumed that all this hymnody during the "golden age" was based on tunes in print and in use in the established churches. He did not consider
the possibility that a secular folk music could have been appropriated to serve this purpose. When we turn to America, we find that writers have agreed that in this country, at least, the hymns were indeed set to secular tunes in the oral tradition. Irving Lowens wrote in the introduction to Wyeth's Repository of Sacred Music Part Second, that:

As early as the 1730's, folk-hymnody a ppears to have flourished, prospering under the impetus of the 'Great Awakening', when Jonathan Edwards, George Whitefield, and other inflammatory preachers s eared the religious conscience of New England. It is highly probable that folk-hymnodyw as an omnipresent phenomenon d uringt he second half
of the 18th century although it is difficult to cite concrete written evidence to that effect.[15]

Jackson assumed that the great body of folk hymn tunes which he discovered in the nineteenth century harmonized long-boys, and which he related to secular folk melodies, was merely the Baptists' "old unwritten music now come out into the open and recorded, tunes and all."[16] Jackson's assumption will be questioned, but going on: Lowens reinforced the folk tune-hymn relationship when he linked the melodic style of certain New England composers with the folk tradition. He wrote:

... it is reasonable t o assumet hat the highly characteristic st yle of composition practiced by Daniel Read, the Lewis Edsons, Jacob French. . . and many othersa ctive in Connecticut a nd central M assachusetts  during the 1780's and 1790's was based on the music they heard around them; the semi-folk idiom they cultivated was in all likelihood based on the music ingrained in their consciousness-Anglo- Celtic folk-music and its religious offshoot, American folk-hymnody.17

The most recent addition to our knowledge of the hymnody of the
18th century comes to us from James C. Downey.18 Deriving his conclusions
from C. C. Goen's 1962 publication, Revivalism and Separatism in New
England, Downey demonstrated quite conclusively that the greatest impetus
to a revival folk hymnody after 1740 came not from the Baptists as Jackson
supposed but from a rather large group of Connecticut and Massachusetts
Strict Congregationalists who, unlike the New Light Congregational revivalists
that remained within the established church, broke away and formed
their own churches. There were at one time 98 of these Separate churches
in New England.19 Most Separates came to believe in the necessity of
Believers Baptism. When they did, whole congregations turned Baptist.20
These evangelistic Separate Baptists had a decisive influence on the character
of worship on the frontier areas; furthermore, they worked closely with
the Particular Baptists of the Philadelphia Association who had begun
calling themselves Regular Baptists to differentiate themselves from the
Separate Baptists. Regulars and Separates united in Virginia and North
Carolina towards the end of the eighteenth century. They united in Kentucky
at the beginning of the nineteenth century. Though they divided again
later in the nineteenth century in Kentucky, the character of the Baptist
worship today in the three denominations with which I am concerned is
dominated by the evangelicalism of the Separate Baptists who originally
came from New England.
In 1959 Alan Lomax recorded a portion of a sermon and hymn at
Blackey, Kentucky.21 The hymn, "Salvation, Oh the Name I Love," (Example
1) was sung from The New Baptist Song Book, a small tuneless book
commonly in use among the United and Regular Baptists of eastern
Kentucky.22 (See Examples in Appendix.)
The New Baptist Song Book.
One observes that the hymn begins unannounced before the preacher
finishes speaking. The deacon or visiting minister who begins the hymn
sings the first line in normal rhythm; others join in as soon as they recognize
the hymn and hymn tune (often the only person with a book is the one
the After the first line is the chants the
SOBNOiGO-~ ~K~~~ ~~~~~~~~::~--:r:
AC OEOC tH0'040
leading the singing). After the line sung, precentor 109
next line rather rapidly. The congregation then repeats the line, singing
the tune (which is in the oral tradition) in a slow, highly ornamented
manner. The rapid lining and slow response continues to the end of the
hymn. No musical instruments are used. Monophony is the basic texture
and intent; heterophony often occurs because individual singers do not sing
the identical ornamentation. A rudimentary polyphony is occasionally observed
when the precentor begins to chant a line before the congregation
has finished its singing. This happens on the Lomax example, and it also
occurs on the word "news" just before the precentor lines the last line of
the hymn "Ye Nations All" (Example 2). Example 3 illustrates the same
hymn as sung by a singer without the lining; and Example 4 is the ballad
"Barbry Ellen," the tune of which is the secular source for the hymn tune.
The chanting style of preaching of the untrained lay preachers who
always speak extemporaneously stems directly from the New England Separate
Strict Congregationalists and Separate Baptists. Goen, speaking of the
New England Separates, writes:
A final aspect of speaking in and for the Spirit was the notion that an
inspired preacher must even sound different.23
George Whitefield, with his "godly tone" is considered the father of
"persuasive intonation."24 To the fiery James Davenport is ascribed the
origination of "the holy whine" which "became a hallmark of Separate
preachers."25 Joseph Fish criticized Davenport's preaching voice as having:
... a strange, unnatural singing tone . . . which odd and ungrateful
tuning of the voice .. .has . . . been propagated down to the present
day (1765), and is become one of the characteristicks of a . . . separate;
that sect being almost universally distinguished by such a tone.26
David Benedict wrote of the Separate Baptist evangelist Shubal Stearns
who had gone from New England first to Virginia and finally to North
Carolina: "... a very warm and pathetic [emotional] address . . 27
In The Art of the American Folk Preacher Bruce A. Rosenberg has
made a study of the song sermons of black Baptist and Pentecostal preachers.
28 Another scholar, Jeff Titon, has made a complete melodic transcription
of a song sermon of the Reverend C. L. Franklin; in addition he has
constructed a model or pattern of phrasing and pitch inflections to which
the song sermons of C. L. Franklin generally adhere.29 A similar study of
the white chanted sermons of the mountain Baptists might prove equally
One might imagine that lining would consist of the precentor singing
a line of a hymn followed by the congregation echoing what they have just
heard. While such a method may have occurred somewhere at some time,
it does not happen that way in live tradition, nor have I ever come across
any descriptive material which indicated that such was ever the case. A little
analysis will indicate the impracticality of such literal lining.
The lining method implies a prior knowledge of the tune on the part
of the singers; consequently, the concern of the precentor is with the text,
not the tune. That being true, he chants the lines rapidly so as not to break
the continuity of the on-going hymn tune any more than necessary. He also
ends his chant on a tone that will assist the singers in pitching the first tone
of their response. Literal lining (the echo effect) would, of course, hinder
the singers from finding their first tone, as the last pitch of the precentor
would only coincidentally assist the singers in their response; furthermore,
if literal lining ever occurred it would have been deadly dull, since a hymn
of ten verses would take precisely twice as long to sing.
Where the lining tradition is strong, as among Regular Baptists of
eastern Kentucky, a deacon or minister, reading from one of the tuneless
hymn books, will follow the procedure which was previously described.
After introducing the first line of melody and text at a regular tempo and
being joined at once by the congregation, he chants the following line of
text rather rapidly on tonic and dominant tones with a few ornamental
flourishes. Sometimes there is a close melodic relationship between the
lining and subsequent singing, but more often the melodic relationship is
quite distant.
We know from the ordinances of the Westminster Assembly of 1644
that at that time the lines of a psalm were read with the congregation
responding with some well known tune from the oral tradition. We may
infer that the custom of reading instead of singing the lines was also practiced
at some time in New England and in Pennsylvania in the late 1840's.
Don Yoder, in his Pennsylvania Spirituals, prints a "lining-out" jest
which he attributes to New England, but which was printed in the Lebanon
Courier, 1849. According to Yoder, the "lining-out" custom was still
hanging on at that time in the old conservative German churches of eastern

An old preacher could not see very well and decided to dispense with
the singing. He arose and said: "My eyes are dim, I cannot see." The clerk
immediately began the singing to the tune of "Old Hundred." The confused
minister explained: "I meant but an apology." That line was sung, and
the excited minister exclaimed: "Forbear! I pray. My sight is dim." The
singing went on and the poor old minister explained: "I do not mean to
read a hymn." Undaunted, the congregation sang on and repeated the
concluding line.3'
A similar anecdote was printed in the Carlisle Herald, November 15,
1854, but two lines were read at a time. This is the way it is done in a
Regular Baptist church near Sparta, North Carolina, where lining has all
but disappeared. Only a few of the Baptist churches in the Sparta area do
any lining whatsoever, and in these few the lining is mixed with singing
from what they call "notebooks," that is, hymn books with musical notation.
Lining is kept alive at The Little River Primitive Baptist Church in
Sparta through the personal efforts of Elder Walter Evans. Elder Evans
is known among the Primitives elsewhere in the country because he and
his congregation have recorded two 12-inch lps. of hymns.32 Unlike the
Regulars in eastern Kentucky where the tradition is strong and lining itself
is sacred and closely associated with the "true old way," Elder Evans' congregation
sings many of the ornamented hymn tunes from their tuneless
books33 without the lining. On other hymns the entire verse is sung without
the lining, and only then is the hymn lined in the regular fashion. While
recording in the church, I was under the impression that this last procedure
was being followed so that everyone could familiarize themselves with the
tune before beginning the lining.
We know from written sources that in New England the introduction
of singing schools and singing societies, together with increasing liberalization
of church doctrine, facilitated the formation of church choirs. Where
choirs were introduced, lining, along with the office of the precentor, disappeared.
This violent musical and stylistic change, supported by the liberal
and educated wing of the clergy, was not accomplished without many a
prolonged and bitter struggle which upon a number of occasions broke up
the church. But in the great majority of churches the lining style simply
passed away from natural causes, not hastened into untimely oblivion by the
zealous reformers such as the Rev. Thomas Symmes or the Rev. Nathaniel
Chauncey. Written documents do not describe this latter process. In order
to understand it, we must turn to the oral tradition where the transition
from a monophonic to a polyphonic hymnody is in progress. What we find
is quite surprising and may be of special interest to those concerned with
the harmonic styles found in the shaped-note long-boys.
Eleanor Weeks Gruman, working on a master's dissertation which was
accepted in 1951, recorded 32 hymns sung by different women in eastern
Kentucky in areas which I did not visit. The ornamented style and tunes
in her material are much the same as that which I collected; however,
lining itself was a thing of the past with these singers. Several did volunteer
to line out a hymn as it was done in the "old days" at church.34 This was
the only lining which Ms. Gruman encountered. I mention this only to
indicate the condition of lining in the areas where Ms. Gruman worked.
She recorded two hymns at Goose Rock, Kentucky, which were sung
in two parts, the tune and a treble over it, which her informants said was
"usually sung by the men." Ms. Gruman comments: "But the fact that the
treble ran in parallel fifths, almost strict organum, astonished us." (Example
In themselves these two items might not be particularly significant;
however, the hymn, "Time Like a Fleeting Shadow Flies," sung by Walter
Evans and congregation at the Little River Primitive Baptist Church at
Sparta, North Carolina, has just such an added treble sung by one or two
men (Example 6) .36
The Raccoon Creek Regular Primitive Baptist Church is a few miles
from Pikesville, Kentucky, in Pike County. This is the only other church
except the Little River Church at Sparta where I heard a polyphonic lined
hymnody. On some of the lined hymns which I taped there the women
instead of the men improvised an added part. Unlike the added parts at
Goose Rock or at Sparta, which were generally sung at the interval of a
fourth or fifth above the tune, the women at Coon Creek generally harmonized
at the interval of a sixth. Parallel motion of parts generally prevailed.
Two phrases ended with a sixth, two with a fifth, and the final cadence
ended at the unison and octave (Example 7).
Apropos of what has just been said is a quotation in the 1724 New
England Courant written by a person who signed himself "Jeoffrey Chanticleer."
In satirizing the lining-out procedure, he writes:
. . .the same person who sets the Tune, and guides the Congregation
in Singing, commonly reads the Psalm, which is a task so few
are capable of performing well, that in Singing two or three staves the
Congregation falls from a cheerful Pitch to downright Grumbling; and
then some to relieve themselves mount an Eighth above the rest, others
perhaps a Fourth or Fifth, by which means the Singing appears to be
rather a confused Noise, made up of Reading, Squeaking, and Grumbling,
than a decent and orderly part of God's Worshp....37
What Chanticleer was hearing was organum, and heobviously didn't
care for it.
Without suggesting that the above is the only way in which the transition
from a monophonic and heterophonic lining hymnody to a polyphonic
hymnody was made, I do suggest that this particular progression, from a
monophonic ornamented, modal melody to organum, then to a less modal
harmonized structure of three or four parts retaining considerable parallelism
in the movement of the voice parts, would be a normal and predictable
harmonic development in the oral tradition. Professor Peter Yates, who has
made a special study of tuning systems, supports the probability of this
particular progression. He mentioned that the parallel fifths and fourths
are more euphoneous when sung without instrumental accompaniment because
they are sung in just intonation. Such parallelisms, when played on
instruments or sung with instrumental accompaniment, are sounded in equal
temperament where the fifths and fourths are more dissonant.38
The above developmental pattern suggests that the printed organum of
the ninth and tenth centuries reflected a similar development in the oral
tradition of that time. Also, it seems quite possible that the so-called "harmonic
peculiarities"-the parallel fourths and fifths-in the shape-note
long-boys may reflect a transitional oral harmonic practice in the churches
on frontier areas in the last half of the eighteenth and early part of the
nineteenth centuries.
It must be realized that the above is purely speculation on the basis
of relatively few musical examples. Another equally valid supposition is
that the singers at Goose Rock and Sparta were singing from some previous
experience of the shape-note hymnodic tradition. This may very well be
true as regards Walter Evans, who had participated in a singing school using
the shape-notes when he was eighteen years old. Also the singers at Raccoon
Creek often sing familiar hymns from their tuneless books, but they attempt
to harmonize them by ear as they have heard them sung elsewhere. This
more recent style of harmonization would account for the predominance
of the interval of the sixth in their performance.
It was previously mentioned that George Pullen Jackson's assumption
of a Baptist source for the folk hymn tunes which he discovered would be
questioned; and, indeed, the findings of James C. Downey (see above) that
the impetus to a revival folk hymnody came first from the Strict Congregationalists
rather than the Baptists sheds new light on the question. However,
a much more fundamental issue was raised by Lucien L. McDowell.
Writing in Songs of the Old Camp Ground, which was published in 1937,
four years after Jackson's White Spirituals in the Southern Uplands, Mc-
Dowell writes of a "hardshell" Baptist Church (a very Calvinistic Primitive)
in his area:
Thus this church has sung the old songs right down to the present
time, long after they have for the most part been everywhere else abandoned
. . . for the old Baptists have stayed close to the little old hymn
books. The camp meeting . .. type of song did not, very obviously, fit
their creed in every instance, and so many of this type were not by
them preserved.39
I agree with McDowell's observation. Generally speaking, the Baptists
held themselves apart from both the excesses of the camp meetings and the
camp meetings themselves.40 The topography, the hermetic culture and
economic condition, successfully prevented the development of the singing
schools and the dissemination of the accompanying shape-note song books
in the mountains. Thus, we can be fairly certain that the performance style
of lining hymnody, as well as most of the folk tunes themselves, represent
nineteenth century practice as well as a probable continuation of an eighteenth
century practice.
I have found very little correlation between the material in the Jackson
books and lining hymnody. Therefore, I would like to suggest that the main
stream of folk hymnody during the last half of the eighteenth century and
the first half of the nineteenth century was the ornamented monophonic
and heterophonic hymnody sung from the tuneless hymn books; and that as
far as the tunes and performance style are concerned, this hymnody is quite
separate from that of the singing school and camp meeting. Jackson's materials
have relevance only to the texts which were often in common with
the camp meeting and "shape-note" hymnody.
Scholars interested in reconstructing the history of eighteenth and nineteenth
century lined hymnody in America are advised to close Jackson's
books for a time and turn directly to the active oral tradition where they
may find answers which printed sources do not as yet disclose.
Membership lists, which are published yearly, can be found in the
minute books of the various associations of Regular, Primitive, and United
Baptists. From these one finds that the lining tradition is active in 283
churches with a combined membership of 17,368 persons. The tradition
should remain fairly stable among Regular Baptists in the mountain areas
for many years. The death of Walter Evans will in all likelihood signal
the end of lining among the Primitive Baptists in North Carolina. In Kentucky
there are seventeen Primitive Baptist churches in the Mates Creek
Association with a combined membership of 1,177. These churches line the
hymns, and may be expected to continue doing so.41 In the Sand Lick
District Association in Virginia there are eleven Primitive Baptist churches
with a combined membership of 598.42 These churches line the hymns;
however, I have not visited them and can venture no opinion as to their
future development. Among the liberal wing of the United Baptists in
Kentucky, lining is rapidly losing ground to the "notebooks." Even an occasional
piano is noticed in a few of the United Churches, a certain sign of
the demise of the lining style.
As to the hymnody in these areas, I have collected 322 separate items
(see the Appendix). Among these are 47 selections from the "long-boy"
and camp meeting hymnody; 101 items from late 19th and 20th century
gospel type hymnody, most of which is sung in the ornamented lining style;
and 172 examples of lining hymns which, in text and style, and probably
tune, relate directly to the Baptist singing during the eighteenth century.
Since this collection is the result of only about four months' work in the
field, one can be certain that additional work will provide additional material.
Lining hymns have a basic beat; however, the beat is entirely free of
strict metronomic regularity. Since the purpose of the transcription is to
describe or symbolize as accurately as possible the pitches and rhythms of
the performance, the deviations from a strict beat are reflected in the
notation. This practice has made the use of time signatures impractical.
The hymn text dictates the rhythmic structure of the melody, and the
use of bar lines reflects this structure. Solid bar lines | are used to signify
the end of a line of text. Broken bar lines l are placed before the main
accents in the text. The melody is notated in the treble clef. The ottava
sign <8 placed below the treble clef indicates that the actual pitches were
sung an octave lower. Generally women as well as men sing in the congregation.
The use of the sign 4 M.W. indicates that both men and women
are singing, and that the women are singing the actual pitches on the staff.
Usually the men outnumber the women. When this is true, or when the
men's voices dominate the performance, a sign to that effect is placed under
the regular clef, eg.: L. = light; V.L. = very light. Where no sign appears,
the balance is approximately even.
Key signatures are used to reflect the actual pitch inflection, not the
mode. Pitches which are sung approximately a quarter tone higher are
marked with the sign t . Pitches sung approximately a quarter tone
lower are marked with the sign , .
Slurs are used to indicate a slide or glide (portamento) from one tone
to another. Melismas are not indicated by any special sign. Melismatic
passages are indicated by the position of the text under the melody.
It has not seemed necessary to use separate staves for the precentor
and the congregation. When the precentor sings alone, the passage is
marked (P.) above the staff. When the congregation sings with the precentor
the passage is marked (P.C.). When the congregation holds the
last note of a tone through the beginning of the next precenting part the
length of the contrapuntal overlap is indicated by a note in brackets above
the staff.
A slight lengthening of the duration of a tone is indicated by a curved
line above it ^ . A slight lessening of the duration of a tone is indicated
by an inverted curved line _ placed above it.
Notes treated as ornaments by the singers, that is, notes which are
noticeably sung with less intensity, are noted with small heads.
A metronome marking is given at the beginning of each example
together with the final tone of the original performance.
A short appogiatura or grace note J takes its time value from the note
that follows it. Its time value is approximately that of a thirty-second note.
Thus J equals ) .. . When it is equal in intensity to the following note.
the note head is of normal size. When it is sung lightly, a small-headed
note is used.
The lower staff, when it appears, is a subjective abstraction of the
tune skeleton. It has been placed there as an aid to tune recognition and
tune classification.
Though the trained musician, in listening to a lining hymn or in
reading the score, observes a basic tune which is ornamented in various
ways, the singers themselves make no such distinction. To them the ornamentation
is an integral part of the whole. Unless it is pointed out to them,
singers are generally unaware of the similarity of selections having essentially
the same tune skeleton but different texts and ornamentation.
The objective of a congregation is to sing the hymn tune in unison.
Lining hymns are highly ornamented and because they are sung with a
relatively flexible beat the ideal of a perfect unison is seldom attained.
Some form of heterophony is usually present, but is not transcribed in
the notation.
In transcribing the singers' performances, the practice has been followed
of omitting obvious errors such as starting over when the pitch was
set too high or too low. Likewise, if the pitch gradually ascends or descends
on a stanza, or if the tempo slightly increases or decreases, such inadvertencies
are not transcribed, as they are not a part of the style of lining hymnody.
Example 1. Salvation, Oh The Name I Love.
M M. h = 96
V.L. Sal - va - ion, oh- the
1 ll H;J 1 1 lgr = -C \i
[J] Pp. c. P
Tr^~~ 17JA^ f
name I love Which came by Christ the Lord a- bove, Which-
1S ; 1IJ 1J J 1
Id2 P.P]
came by Christ the Lord a - bove; Sur -
P. C
,F - I fr ~ r-r I r 1
(M.W. 3
pris - ing wls-dom,match-less grace, Sur - pris - - in
118 r
w1s - - dom, match - less
M.W. r ' _
grace, Which reached my low ana help-less case, Which
1i J t I j I
reached my low____ and
1 4, J I r I -T i
'J d F.-J ; ii
help - less case.
,? J tiI,J
Example 2. Ye Nations All, On You I Call.
M.M. J"= 92
W.'J ^ r
Ye na - tions all, on
M.W rWUT^ ^-^
you I call, Come- hear this de-cla-ra-tion,
P. 3,
-_ Come_ hear this de - cla - ra
4 J Ir r C i I J
] P. P. C.
tion, And don't re - fuse the glo- riousnews;_ And_
~4L ~
L[^~~~~~~~~ - I I
ft. KLrr^ flJiJ
don't - re - fuse the glo rious_
news, Of Je - sus and sal - va-tion.- Otf
M.W. .
Je - sus and sal - - va - tion._
9t$, G rJIj.n J 1
Example 3. Ye Nations All, On You I Call.
M M. = 92
- 3-"
$ j k;4^ sJJ 'I J
jL t2_
Ye_ na - tions all, On you I call,_
j ,^ i !
j 'rJ r i j
Come hear this de -- c - - ra - tion, And_
don't re-fuse the glo- ri -ous news,_
._ r" -" - hj Ph J ii"1
Of__ Je - sus and sal va - tion
Example 4. Barbry Ellen.
M.M = 76
All in the mer - - ry month of May, When the
rain - buds they were swell - ing, Sweet Will - iam
^ i' Gp ti? i j1 i^j 4 jg
on his death-bed lay_ For the love of Barb - ry
) JpJ _J, II
Ell - en.
Example 5. Come, My Dear Friends, and Mourn.
Come my dear fri ends and mourn with me
m f t- e re vd
In my of - flict- ed_ state I ___ am___ be - reaved as
r s, my dr r 4 - r m
you may- see, Of my dear lov - ing . mate
Example 6. Time Like a Fleeting Shadow Flies.
M M -84
(t4Q *i r rr <
But_ far_ be- yond death's gloom - y vale A
w | hecv 'n- ly build - ing stands; Pro - li - fic streams of
M.Wt .. F ^r T ^r fr f l
glo - ry flow In_ those ce - les - rial lands.
Example 7. Oh Ye Young, Ye Gay, Ye Proud.
MMM 96
*t J J ;^? jJSG ; ____
Oh ye_ you ng, ye. gay, -_ ye. proud ! You must
_ n Women
Men and Women
NI - t- 7 r ir ik h
die_ and wear the shroud,- You_ must die and
ff i#_ ~ .t1l _ =. T
b,7#~~ ~ ~~~I I W I ' r
wear_ the shroud. Time will rob you of your bloom,
tt H 1 'J - ? y t I
i,J J J J I - k
1g? ^. ; ^j r ; r-^' r '
Time_ will rob__ you of your
3 3
qloom, Death will drag_ you to your tomb;_
l -t": r ' rJ J
Death will drag you to your tomb; Thenyoullcry
~ L, - ; - ,j ; n. J ; p . , -t
. 2 G 9 'P I J I j rf*
I want to be then you'll cry I
" - 1J25 f i r
(^ r: r
,1. n a
want to be Hap- py in_ e - ter - - ni - ty,
1, f r iJ
| n J AS i J J J J J I
hap - py in e - ter - - ni - ty.
j I J
,LJ J 11
Hap - - py in e - ter - - ni - ty.
it * J 126 c i J r J
1This paper was presented to the Sonneck Society at their first meeting in
Middletown, Connecticut, October 18, 1975; much of the contents was also included
in a paper "Baptist Lining-Hymns" presented to the American Folklore Society in
Atlanta, Georgia, in November, 1969.
2 George Hood, A History of Music in New England (New York: Johnson Reprint
Corp., reprint of 1846 edition, 1970), p. 47.
3 Gilbert Chase, America's Music (New York: McGraw-Hill, revised 2nd edition,
1966), pp. 22-40.
4 George Pullen Jackson, White and Negro Spirituals (New York: J. J. Augustin
Publishers, 1943), p. 251.
5 George Hood, op. cit., p. 200.
6 Louis F. Benson, The English Hymn (Richmond, Virginia, 1962 reprint, John
Knox Press), p. 99.
7 Ibid., p. 100.
8 Jesse Howard Cates, "American Baptist Hymnody from 1640 to 1850" (unpublished
Master's dissertation, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, Louisville, Kentucky,
1948), p. 6.
9 Robert H. Young, "The History of Baptist Hymnody in England from 1612 to
1800" (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Southern California, 1959),
p. 59.
10 Benson, op. cit., p. 197.
Ibid., p. 197.
12 Ibid., p. 197.
13 James Cecil Downey, "The Music of American Revivalism" (unpublished
Ph.D. dissertation, Tulane University, 1968) cf., Appendix I and Appendix II.
14 Young, op. cit., p. 73.
15 Irving Lowens, Wyeth's Repository of Sacred Music Part Second (New York:
Da Capo Press, 1964), p. v.
16George Pullen Jackson, Down East Spirituals and Others (New York: J. J.
Augustin Publishers, 1939), p. 6.
17 Lowens, op. cit., p. v.
18 Downey, op. cit.
19 C. C. Goen, Revivalism and Separatism in New England 1740-1800 (New
Haven: Yale University Press, 1962).
20 Ibid., p. 327.
21 Alan Lomax, "Sermon and Lining Hymn," White Spirituals, Atlantic 1349,
Side one, Band five.
22 Foster Ratliff, The New Baptist Song Book (Lookout, Kentucky: published
by the author).
23 Goen, op. cit., p. 179.
24 Ibid.
25 Ibid.
26 The Church of Christ a Firm and Durable House, quoted in Goen, op. cit.,
p. 179.
27 David Benedict, A General History of the Baptist Denomination in America
(New York: Lewis Colby & Co., 1848), p. 683.
28 Bruce Rosenberg, The Art of the American Folk Preacher (New York: Oxford
University Press, 1970).
29 Jeff Titon, "Tonal System in the Chanted Oral Sermons of the Rev. C. L.
Franklin," an illustrated lecture delivered at the Annual Meeting of the Society for
Ethnomusicology, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut, October 17, 1975.
30 Don Yoder, Pennsylvania Spirituals (Lancaster, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania
Folklife Society, 1961), p. 130.
31 Ibid., pp. 130-131.
32 Old Hymns Lined and Led by Elder Walter Evans (Sovereign Grace Recordings
6057 and 6444. Baptist Bible Hours, Inc., Box 17032, Cincinnati, Ohio, 45217).
33 D. H. Goble, Primitive Baptist Hymn Book (Greenfield, Indiana: D. H. Goble
Printing Co., 1887). An undated reprint.
34 Eleanor Weeks Gruman, "Kentucky Mountain Hymn Tunes"' (Master's dissertation
in Sacred Music, Union Theological Seminary, N.Y.C., 1951).
35 Ibid., p. 56.
36 Old Hymns Lined and Led by Elder Walter Evans, op. cit.
37 Henry W. Foote, Three Centuries of American Hymnody (Hamden, Connecticut:
Shoe String Press, 1961, reprint of the 1940 edition), p. 376.
38 Conversation with Peter Yates (October 23, 1975, Buffalo, N.Y.).
39 L. L. McDowell, Songs of the Old Camp Ground (Ann Arbor, Michigan:
Edwards Bros., 1937), p. 19.
40 David Benedict, op. cit., p. 688. Also, one reads in the folklike History of
Regular Baptist: "Thus the revival proved a great blessing to the Baptists of Kentucky,
though they did not join as a denomination with others in promotion (sic)
it." Rufus Perrigan, History of Regular Baptist [sic] and Their Ancestors and Accessors
(Haysi, Virginia: privately printed by the author, 1961), pp. 126-127.
41 Elder Walter Evans, private correspondence, January 28, 1976.
42 Ibid.
Hymn Collection
William H. Tallmadge
J-George Pullen Jackson Index (Another Sheaf of White Spirituals).
NBSB-The New Baptist Hymn Book (1967) Foster Ratliff, Lookout, Kentucky,
T-Thomas Hymnal (1877) publ. Arrowood Bros., Wayne, W. Va.
G-Primitive Baptist Hymn Book (1877) compiled by D. H. Goble, Greenfield,
SS-Sweet Songster (1854) compiled by Edward W. Billups, publ. Arrowood Bros.,
Wayne, W. Va.
GOS-The Good Old Songs (1913) compiled by Elder C. H. Cayce, Cayce Publ.
Co., Thornton, Arkansas.
PBHTB-Primitive Baptist Hymn Book and Tune Book (1918) compiled by Elder
John Daily, publ. Lasserre Bradley, Jr., Cincinnati, O.
OSH-Old School Hymnal (1964) P.O. Box 17032, Cincinnati, 0. 45217.
BH-Ballad Hymn (narrative hymn based on Old or New Testament material)
SBH-Subjective Ballad Hymn (a personalized narrative hymn)
GH-Gospel Hymn
GSH-Gospel Styled Hymn (a sentimental contemporary hymn)
GSSBH-Gospel Styled, Subjective Ballad Hymn
CMH-Camp Meeting Hymn
CMC-Camp Meeting Chorus
C-with Chorus
(L)-Hymn was lined-out
1. A caution to the churches (NBSB)-(L)H.
2. A child of Jehovah (G #245; GOS; PBHTB)-SBH.
3. A few more days on earth (G; T #585; J; GOS)-(L)H.
4. A few more years shall roll (NBSB p. 46; G #286) H. Bonair (1880-
5. Afflictions, though they seem severe (T #468; SS p. 21; OSH; PBHTB;
GOS) Attrib. to J. Newton-BH.
6. A home in heaven (G #277) W. Hunter (1811-1877) H.
7. Amazing Grace, how sweet the sound (NBSB; G; T; J; GOS; PBHTB; OSH)
John Newton (1725-1807) '(L)H.
8. Amazing sight the Savior stands (SS p. 9) Billips?-H.
9. Am I a soldier of the Cross (SS p. 12; G #62; T #412; NBSB; PBHTB; GOS;
OSH) I. Watts (1674-1746) H.
10. An alien from God (NBSB p. 141; T. #365; G #176; GOS) L. J. Cox (?)
11. And must I be to judgment brought (SS p. 27; J) Ch. Wesley (1707-1788) H.
12. And must this body die? (NBSB p. 128; G #147; T #338) I. Watts (1674-
1746) (L)H.
13. And now, my dear brethren, I bid you farewell (SS p. 34; GOS) Harris (?)
14. Angels get my mansions ready (NBSB p. 100)-(L)GSHC.
15. As I travel this path D. Sanders (1914- ) GSSBH.
16. As I travel this wide world over (NBSB p. 86)-(L)GSSBH.
17. As Jacob was traveling (NBSB p. 120)-BHC.
18. Asleep in Jesus blessed sleep (T #302; G #263; GOS; OSH; PBHTB) Mrs.
Margaret Mackay (1802-1887) (L)H.
19. As on the cross the Savior hung (G #17; T #178; SS p. 20; J; GOS; PBHTB)
Samuel Stennett (1727-1795) (L)H.
20. As time draws nigh (NBSB p. 16)-GSSBH.
21. A story most pleasing I'll tell (J; SS p. 30) Wm. Walker, compiler of Southern
Harmony, claims it (-) BH.
22. A trav'ling pilgrim here I am (SS p. 25)-SBH.
23. Attend, young friends (SS p. 29)-BH.
24. A twelve month more (SS p. 7)-BH.
25. Awaked by Sinai's awful sound (G #50; T #435; PBHTB) S. Occom SBH.
26. Awake my soul (T #3) I. Watts-Joel Barlow (1755-1812) (L)H.
27. Away from his home (SS p. 333; T #583) Thos. Drumon (-) BH.
28. Before the day-star knew its place (G #24) John Kent (1766-1843) H.
29. Behold that great and awful day (SS p. 35) - - - H.
30. Beside the Gospel pool (T #444; G #170; J; PBHTB) John Newton (1725-
1807) SBH.
31. Bold soldiers all on you I call (NBSB p. 3) - - - (L)GSSBH.
32. Brethren, we have met again (NBSB p. 27; T #480) ---- (L)SBH.
33. Brethren, we have met to worship (SS p. 47; J. PBHTB; GOS; OSH) Wm.
Moore (?) (L)SBH.
34. Broad is the road (G #7; T #14; J; GOS; OSH; PBHTB) I. Watts (1674-
1746) H.
35. Brothers fare you well - - - CMH.
36. Children of the Heavenly King (T #469; J; G #61; PBHTB; OSH; GOS)
Johi Cenneck (1718-1755) H.
37. Come all ye knighted sons of Mobites (NBSB) - -- BH.
38. Come brethren and sisters and hear me relate (T # 455; PBHTB) - -
39. Come holy spirit heavenly dove (SS p. 60; G #130; T #39; J; OSH; PBHTB;
GOS) I. Watts (1674-1746) H.
40. Come listen one, come listen all (NBSB p. 7) - - - (L)BH.
41. Come my dear friends and mourn with me (NBSB p. 47) - - - SBH.
42. Come now, my dear brethren (SS p. 47; J gives Dupuy Hymn Book Hymns
and Spiritual Songs, Frankfort, Ky. 1812) - - - BH.
43. Come think on death and judgment (SS p. 64) - - (L)SBH.
44. Come Thou font of every blessing (SS p. 69; G #164; T #395; J; OSH;
GOS; PBHTB) Robt. Robinson (1735-1790) H.
45. Come Thou long expected Jesus (G #304; PBHTB; GOS) Charles Wesley
(1707-1788) (L)H.
46. Come up here, my little Bessie (NBSB p. 36) - - SBH.
47. Come ye sinners poor and needy (T #459; G #112; J; OSH) Joseph Hart
(1712-1768) H and CMHC.
48. Companions draw nig1 ("ballit" sheet) -- SBH.
49. Dark and thorny is the desert (SS p. 47) - -- (L)H.
50. Dear brethren farewell (T #485) - - - SBH.
51. Dear friends, farewell I do you tell (T #493, G #238; J; GOS) - -SBH.
52. Dear Redeemer, keep me free (G #321) D. H. Goble (?) GSSBHC.
53. Did Christ the great example lead (G #95; T #515; J; OSH; GOS) Wm.
Cowper (1731-1800) H.
54. Draw near, poor sinners, hear me tell (NBSP p. 23) - - - GSSBH.
55. Dread not the things that are ahead (NBSB p. 123) -- - GSHC.
56. Drooping souls, no longer grieve (J) Thos. Hastings (1784-1872) (?) H.
57. Every moment brings me nearer (T #315; G #247) - -- (L)SBH.
58. Farewell, farewell, to all below (NBSB p. 48) - - - GSSBHC.
59. Farewell mother, I am dying (NBSB p. 85) - - - GSSBH.
60. Farewell, my dear brethren, the time is at hand (T #494; G #240; SS p. 88;
J; PBHTB; GOS) -- - SBH.
61. Farewell, vain world, Im going home (NBSB p. 26; T #560) - -- SBH.
62. For fear the hearts of men are failing (-) - -- BH.
63. For many long years I've traveled (Hymns and Songs of Joy, Ray Collins)
64. From all that's mortal (G #17; T #377; OSH; PBHTB; GOS) - - - H.
65. From every stormy wind that blows (G #204; T #150; OSH; PBHTB; GOS)
Hugh Stowell (1799-1865) H.
66. From whence doth this union arise (G #206; J; T #478; PBHTB) Thos.
Baldwin (1753-1825) H.
67. Give me the roses while I live (NBSB p. 35) - - - GSSBH.
68. Glorious things of Thee are spoken (T #476; G #163; J; OSH; PBHTB; GOS)
John Newton (1725-1807) H.
69. God moves in a mysterious way (T #5; G #1; PBHTB; OSH; GOS) Wm.
Cowper (1731-1800) H.
70. Grace 'tis a charming sound (T #181; G #15; J; PBHTB; OSH; GOS)
Philip Doddridge (1702-1751) H.
71. Guide me, O Thou Great Jehovah (NBSB p. 50; G #179; T #464; J; OSH;
GOS; PBHTB) In G. Robinson? W. Williams (1717-?) (L) H.
72. Hail the blest morn (G #213; T #460; J; GOS; OSH; PBHTB) Reginald
Heber (1783-1863) CMHC.
73. Hark don't you hear the turtle dove (Lloyd's Hymnal) - -- BH.
74. Hark from the tombs (G #149; T #305; J; GOS) I. Watts (1674-1746) H.
75. Hark, listen to the trumpeters (SS. p. 115; J) - - - (L)SBH.
76. Hark the voice of love and mercy (G #44; GOS) Jonathan Evans (1748-
1809) (L)H.
77. Hear the royal proclamation (T #364; G #168; J) -- - CMHC.
78. Hear ye Lord the Gospel trumpet (-) - - - H.
79. Here at Thy table Lord we meet (SS p. 107; J; PBHTB; (GOS) Samuel
Stennett (1727-1795) H.
80. Hosannah! Jesus reigns (G #162) Thompson ( ) H (L).
81. How firm a foundation (SS p. 113; T #470; G #167; J; OSH; GOS;
PBHTB) G. Keith (from Ripon's Selection 1787) H.
82. How happy they are (T #403; J)- - - (L)SBH.
83. How happy's every child of grace (G #177; T #482; J; GOS) Charles Wesley
(1707-1788) H.
84. How lost was my condition (SS p. 121; G #224; GOS; PBHTB) John Newton
(1725-1807) H.
85. How shall I my Savior set forth (G #181) Mary H. Maxwell (?) H.
86. How sweet to reflect on the joy (T #425; G #304; GOS; PBHTB) W. C.
Tillou claims it? H.
87. How tedious and tasteless the hours (G #212; SS p. 120; J; PBHTB; GOS;
OSH) John Newton (1725-1807) (L)H.
88. Hug me closer, mother (NBSB p. 36) - GSSBH.
89. I am a little scholar (T #551; GOS) - - SBH.
90. I am a little traveler (NBSB p. 142) - - - (L)GSSBH.
91. I am a poor pilgrim of sorrow (NBSB p. 32) - - - SBHC.
92. I am a poor wayfaring stranger (NBSB p. 25; J; OSH; GOS) - - - SBHC.
93. I am a soldier bound for glory (NBSB p. 61) - (L)SBHC.
94. I am a soldier for my Lord ("ballit" sheet) - - GSSBH.
95. I am a stranger here below (SS p. 140; T #421; G #200; J; GOS; PBHTB;
OSH) --- (L)SBH.
96. I am a traveling creature (NBSB p. 32) SBHC.
97. I am dwelling on the mountain (OSH #228) Anon. GH.
98. I am going to heaven some day (NBSB p. 72) - - - SBHC.
99. I am going to that city where the lights are hanging high (NBSB p. 95)
- - -GSSBH.
100. I am going up dear papa (NBSB p. 94) - - GSSBH.
101. I am not ashamed to own my Lord (NBSB p. 51; T #418; SS p. 130) I. Watts
(1674-1746) H.
102. I am on a journey (-) Jo Ann Hill (1931?) GSSBH.
103. I am on the Gospel highway (NBSB p. 83) - - (L)GSSBH.
104. I am so glad that Jesus took another look (-) David Hill (1930- ) GSSBH.
105. I am thinking tonight of my old cottage home (NBSB p. 137) - -- GSSBH.
106. I am walking in the light (Lloyd Hymnal) - - - SBH.
107. I beheld a chain, a beautiful chain (NBSB p. 132) - - - SBH.
108. I came to the spot where the white pilgrim lay (SS p. 130; T #584; J) John
Ellis (1812-1894) SBH.
109. I'd like to try and help you (source & author Crady Smith) GSSBH.
110. I'd love to go back and meet with God's children (source & author Walter Evans
c. 1962-64) SBH.
111. If I could be living when Jesus comes (NBSB p. 11) - - - (L)GSHC.
112. If we would live an humble life (NBSB p. 99) - SBH.
113. I have a call for you (NBSB p. 33)-(L)SBH.
114. I have started for thy kingdom (NBSB p. 37) - - -(L)GSHC.
115. I'll go where you want me to go (The New Cokesbury Hymnal, Nashville
(1928) ---GSH.
116. I'll sing a song which doth belong (SS p. 148) - - - SBH.
117. I long to see the seasons come (T #458; J) - (L)H.
118. I love my saviour God (NBSB p. 11; T #388) - (L)H.
119. I love Thy kingdom, Lord (T #96; G #266; GOS; OSH; PBHTB) Timothy
Dwight (1752-1817) (L)H.
120. I love to steal awhile away (G #267; T# 146; OSH; PBHTB; GOS) Mrs.
Phoebe H. Brown (1783-1861) (L)SBH.
121. I'm alone, all alone, my friends have all fled (NBSB p. 86) - - - GSSBH.
122. I'm alone in this world, dear Lord, I'm alone (source and author Walter
Evans) GSSBH.
123. I'm a lonely pilgrim in this world (source and author Walter Evans) SBH.
124. I'm glad He came (source and author Delbert Sanders, 1914- ) GSSBH.
125. I'm going to that city (Old Time Song Ballads p. 22) Ernest Reynolds (-)
126. I'm happy, I'm happy, O! wondrous account (SS p. 127) - H.
127. I'm on my way to Canaan's land CMC.
128. I'm so glad today, I'm ready (NBSB p. 134) - - - (L)GSSBH.
129. I'm trying to travel the path that is straight (Hymns and Songs of Joy, R. Collins,
Whitesburg, Ky.) - -- GSSBHC.
130. In all my Lord's appointed ways (NBSB p. 51; T #530; G #256; OSH; GOS;
PBHTB) J. Ryland (-) SBH.
131. In that dear old village churchyard (NBSB p. 28) - - GSSBH.
132. In those days came John the Baptist (NBSB p. 140) - - BH.
133. In the house of King David (SS p. 142) fr. Dupuy's Hymnal H.
134. In union with the lamb (G #14) J. Kent (1766-1843) H.
135. I once had a father (NBSB #79) - -- GSSBHC.
136. I once had a loving mother (Baptist Witness, Nov., '66) W. Evans (-)
137. I overtook a pilgrim (NBSB p. 130) - - - (L)GSSBH.
138. I sat alone at the midnight hour (NBSB p. 119) - - - GSSBHC.
139. I saw the Jewish temple purged (G #248) - - - SBH.
140. Is it wrong to hope (Hymns & Songs of Joy, Ray Collins, Whitesburg, Ky.)
141. I sometimes think it's too good to be true (NBSB p. 1) - -(L) GSSBHC.
142. I stand all bewildered with wonder (Gruman dissertation p. 41) SBH.
143. It is a glorious mystery (G #207) - - - CMHC.
144. It seems that the wails of a Christian (NBSB p. 109) Harry Caudill, Lincoln
Co., Ky. (-) GSSBHC.
145. I've got a mother in that blood-washed army GSSBH.
146. I've heard them sing again (NBSB p. 93) - - - (L)GSSBHC.
147. I want to live a Christian here (J; GOS) - - CMH.
148. I want to live so I'll be ready (NBSB p. 111) - - (L)SBH.
149. I was called from home one evening (NBSB p. 40) - - - GSSBHC.
150. I was once like a lonely sparrow (Baptist Bible Hour, 9th Anniversary Booklet)
W. Evans (-) SBH.
151. I was standing by my window (Hymns & Songs of Joy, Ray Collins 1969)
- - - GSSBH.
152. I was strolling one day in a lonely graveyard (Hymns & Songs of Joy, R. Collins)
- - SBH.
153. I will not be with you long dear mother (NBSB p. 4) - - - GSSBH.
154. I wonder sometimes about my friends ( ) David Hill, 1930) GSSBH.
155. Jerusalem my happy home long sought (NBSB p. 52; T #461; G #188; J;
GOS; OSH; PHBTB Old Latin hymn since 1590's-Jackson (L)SBH.
156. Jesus, grant us all a blessing (T #231; G #237; GOS; PBHTB; J) Geo. Atkins
157. Jesus is all I wish or want (G #254; GOS; PBHTB) -- (L)H.
158. Jesus left his home in glory (NBSB p. 41)- (L)HC.
159. Jesus Thou art the sinner's friend (SS p. 153; T #471; G #189; J; GOS;
OSH; PBHTB) Richard Burnham (-) H.
160. Jesus while our hearts are bleeding (G #28) Thos. Hastings (1784-1872) H.
161. Jesus Who knows full well (T #221; GOS) John Newton (1725-1807) H.
162. Joyfully, joyfully onward I move (SS p. 153; T #547) - - - SBH.
163. Keep silence all created things (G #3) I. Watts (1674-1746) H.
164. Last night while sleeping on my bedside - - GSSBH.
165. Let the kingdom blessed Savior (T #424; SS p. 173; GOS) - - - H.
166. Let us walk in the light CMHC.
167. Lift up your hearts (T #500; J) - - - H.
168. Like sheep we went astray (T #275) I. Watts (1674-1746) H.
169. Lord at Thy table we behold (G #89; T #136; GOS no tune) Samuel Stennett
(1727-1795) H.
170. Lord, I wonder if my daddy will be on that train GSSBH.
171. Lord, we have long abused Thy love (SS p. 162) - - H.
172. Love divine, all love excelling (G #290; OSH; GOS) C. Wesley (1707-1788)
173. Love is the sweetest bud that blows (T #399; G #249) Joseph Swain (1761-
1796) H.
174. Mixture of joy and sorrow (T #499; SS p. 185; G #225; OSH; GOS)
-- - SBH.
175. Must Jesus bear the cross alone? (NBSB p. 53; OSH; GOS; GHC) Geo. N.
Allen (-) (L)GH.
176. My Brethren and Sisters, I bid you farewell (SS p. 180) - -SBH.
177. My Buried Friends can I forget (NBSB p. 54; T #317; GOS no tune) - - -
178. My dearest friends in bonds of love (SS p. 183; OSH) J. Ingals (1764-1828)
179. My father's gone to glory, I'm alone in this world (NBSB p. 14; J) --
180. My head and stay is called away (SS p. 180) - - - BH.
181. My heart is filled with sorrow (Raymond Collin's Old Time Songs & Ballads)
- - -GSSBH.
182. My heavenly home is bright and fair (NBSB p. 33; J; GOS; OSH) Wm. Hunter
(1811-1877) GSSBHC.
183. My latest sun is sinking fast (T #289; OSH; GOS) J. Hascal (-) CMHC.
184. My life in this world (source and author Walter Evans) SBH.
185. My soul's full of glory (Charles Wooten Hymnal; J) - - SBH.
186. No home, no home, cried a little girl (NBSB p. 30; J) - - GSSBH.
187. Now the time is fast approaching (NBSB p. 90) - - GSSBH.
188. O Beautiful hills of Galilee (G #281) T. B. Ausmus (-) GSHC.
189. O come, come with me to the old churchyard (T #298; J; PBHTB; GOS)
190. O fathers I love Jesus CMHC.
191. O fathers won't you come CMHC.
192. O for a closer walk with God (SS p. 208; T #44; G #59; PBHTB; GOS) Wm.
Cowper (1731-1800) H.
193. O give me, Lord, my sins to mourn (T #226; GOS) - - - H.
194. O happy day when saints shall meet (G #234; SS p. 213; T #496) - --
195. O have you heard of that sun-bright clime (SS p. 199) - - SBH.
196. O how happy are they (G #215; J; OSH; PBHTB; GOS) Chas. Wesley (1707-
1788) H.
197. O happy time, long waited for (SS p. 204; T #396; G #195; GOS; JA p. 171;
Christian Harmony)- - SBH.
198. O land of rest for thee I sigh (NBSB p. 59; T #360; G #264; J; OSH;
PBHTB; TOS) - - - SBH.
199. O little dove, you're not alone BH.
200. On a dark stormy night the angels called mother (Old Time Song Ballads)
--- GSSBH.
201. One day alone in a lonesome grove (Old Time Song Ballads) - - GSSBH.
202. One day I was thinking (Old Time Song Ballads) - - - GSSBH.
203. One day while I was praying (- David Hill c. 1930) GSSBH.
204. One night as I lay musing (SS p. 201; J) Veder (-) SBH.
205. One night while the moon from heaven was shining (NBSB p. 5) (L)GSSBH.
206. On Jordan's Stormy banks I stand (SS p. 200; G #209; J; GOS; PBHTB)
Samuel Stennett (1727-1795) H and CMHC.
207. On the banks of fair Jordan (NBSB #142) Roy B. Akers (-) BH.
208. O're [sic] Death's sea is yon blessed city (NBSB p. 45) - - (L)GSSBH.
209. O Sing me a song of heaven (NBSB p. 58; SS p. 325; T #297; G #279; J;
OSH; PBHTB; GOS) G. W. Bartlett (-) (L)CMHC.
210. O they called John from the island (NBSB p. 89) - - - BHC.
211. O they tell me of a home (Hymns and Songs of Joy, Ray Collins) - -
212. O Thou in whose presence my soul takes delight (T #409; G #229; J; GOS;
PBHTB; OSH) Joseph Swain (1761-1796) H.
213. O turn ye, O turn ye (SS p. 214) --- H.
214. Our bondage here shall end (T #501; J; PBHTB; GOS) - -SBH.
215. Our cheerful voices let us raise (NBSB p. 98; J) - - - (L)SBH.
216. Our land's in view (a chorus to "When I can read my title clear") - -
217. O When shall I see Jesus (T #391; G #165; NBSB; J; GOS; PBHTB)
-- H.
218. O where was I when the Lord found me? GSSBH.
219. O ye young, ye gay, ye proud (SS p. 214; J) - - - (L)H.
220. Poor and afflicted, Lord (T #445; G #257; OSH; PBHTB; GOS) Thos.
Kelly (1769-1854) (L)H.
221. Precious memories (NBSB #117; OSH) J.B.F. Wright (-) GHC.
222. Salem's bright king, Jesus by name (NBSB p. 62; T #89; PBHTB; (L)BH.
223. Salvation, Oh the name (NBSB p. 12) - - - (L)H.
224. Savior visit Thy plantations (T #465; G #174; J; GOS) John Newton (1725-
1807) H.
225. See the Christian in that day (SS p. 234) - -- CMHC.
226. Shed not a year (My Favorite Songs, G. Bennett Adams) -- --GSSBH.
227. Sister, thou wast mild and lovely (NBSB p. 63; T #329; G #280; J S; GOS;
PBHTB) S. F. Smith (-) SBH.
228. Sit down by the side of your mother (NBSB p. 2) - - - GSSBH.
229. So Jesus said, "Go feed my sheep" BH.
230. Some have fathers over yonder CMHC.
231. Sometimes there is joy (NBSB p. 118) ---GSSBHC.
232. Summer's passed GSSBHC.
233. Sweet glories rush upon my sight (SS p. 237) - - SBHC.
234. Sweet memory of dear mother (NBSB p. 15) - - -GSSBHC.
235. Sweet Rivers of redeeming love (NBSB p. 64; T #559; G #222; J; TOS;
OSH) William Moore (-) (L)SBH.
236. Sweet was the time when first I felt (T #224; Lloyd's Hymnal; PBHTB; GOS)
J. Newton (1725-1807) SBH.
237. Tarry with me, O my Savior (NBSB p. 127; T #340; G #219; GOS) - - -
238. Tempted and tried (Hymns & Songs of Joy, R. Collins) - - -GSSBHC.
239. The day is past and gone (NBSB p. 66; T #219; G #109; SS p. 273; J; OSH;
GOS) John Leland (1754-1841) (L)H.
240. The Gospel ship has long been sailing (NBSB p. 72; SS p. 261; J A) A. S.
Kieffer? (L)BHC.
241. The Great tremendous day's approaching (SS p. 265) - -H.
242. The little babe is gone to rest (NBSB p. 39) - - GSSBH.
243. The sun above us gleaming (T #450) - - - H.
244. There are loved ones now in glory (NBSB p. 57) -- - GSHC.
245. There is a fountain filled with blood (OSH; PBHTB; GOS; G; SS; T)
Wm. Cowper (1731-1800) SBHC.
246. There is a heaven above the skies (SS p. 279; T #442) - - SBH.
247. There is a place where my hopes are stayed (T #508; J; PBHTB) - -
248. There is a spot to me more dear (G #275; PBHTB) Wm. Hunter (1811-1877)
249. There is a home just over yonder (NBSB p. 104) - - (L) SBH.
250. The ten young friends (G #32) - - - GSSBH.
251. There's a beautiful home for God's children (Baptist Witness April 1963)
Walter Evans (-) SBH.
252. There was a little family (NBSB p. 129; J; GOS) - - - BH.
253. There was a Romish lady (J; GOS) - - - BH.
254. The time is swiftly rolling on (NBSB p. 74; T #545; SS p. 276; J; GOS)
Rev. B. Hicks (-) (L)SBH.
255. The voice of my beloved spoke (Baptist Witness, April 1960) W. Evans (-)
256. The voice of the shepherd his flock shall convene (NBSB p. 116; G #172)
Kent (-) BH.
257. Thou, dear Redeemer, dying lamb (G #111; GOS) John Cennick (1718-1755)
258. Thy mercy my God is the theme (G #28; J; T #371; GOS; PBHTB) John
Stocker (c. 1777) H.
259. Time like a fleeting shadow (T #328; G #190) W. Thompson (-) (L)H.
260. 'Tis a point I long to know (G #184; T #406; GOS; PBHTB; OSH) J. Newton
(1725-1807) (L)SBH.
261. 'Tis religion that can give (G #169; T #416; PBHTB) Mary Masters (-)
262. Today we assemble on the ground (NBSB p. 113) - -SBH.
263. Together let us sweetly sing CMHC.
264. Two coats before me, the old and the new GSSBH.
265. Wake up, ye muse (NBSB p. 88) -- - (L)GSSBH.
266. Walk with me Lord (Hymns and Songs of Joy) - - CMH.
267. We learn to live humble CMH.
268. Well, wife, I've found the model church (NBSB p. 91) - -SBH.
269. We shall sleep but not forever (G #233) J. E. Goodson, Jr. SBHC.
270. We speak of the realms of the blest (G #221; T #394; GOS; PBHTB) Eliz.
Mills (1805-1829) H.
271. What a friend we have in Jesus (G #308; PBHTB; OSH) H. Bonar (1808-
1889) H.
272. What's (is) this that steals upon my frame (G #276; J) - - SBHC.
273. What wondrous love is this (G #216; T #554; J; GOS; PBHTB; OSH)
- - - SBH.
274. When friends and relations forsake me GSSBH.
275. When I can read my title clear (NBSB p. 66; T #199; SS p. 318; G #161;
J; GOS; OSH; PBHTB) I. Watts (1674-1746) (L)H.
276. When I reach my home eternal (NBSB p. 27) - - - (L)GSSBH.
277. When I shall cross over the dark rolling tide (NBSB p. 81) - - - (L)
278. When I survey this wondrous cross (T #140; G #94; PBHTB; OSH; GOS)
I. Watts (1674-1746) (L)H.
279. When Jesus Christ was here below (NBSB p. 70; SS p. 306) Billups (?) BH.
280. When Jesus Christ was here on earth (Old Time Ballads, Collins) - - - BH.
281. When Mary had come, the Lord Jesus to seek (SS p. 300) - - - BH.
282. When Moses and the Israelites (NBSB p. 19, '49 ed.) - - - BHC.
283. When sorrows encompass me round (PBHB #311; T #392; OSH; GOS)
- SBH.
284. When the day is brightest (G #307; OSH) Mrs. S. W. Straub (-) H.
285. When thou, my righteous judge (T #457; G #142; J; GOS; PBHTB; OSH)
Selina Huntingdon (1707-1791) H.
286. When time shall come for my leaving (Hymns and Songs of Joy) - - -
287. Where is (are) now my father's family (Old Time Song Ballads, Collins)
-* - (L)GSSBHC.
288. Where two or three with sweet accord (T #98) Samuel Stennett (1727-
1795) H.
289. While (When) passing a garden (SS p. 291) - - SBH.
290. While wandering to and fro (T #504) - - CMHC.
291. Why do we mourn departing friends (NBSB p. 82; T #325; SS 304; G #141;
J; GOS; PBHTB) I. Watts (1674-1746) H.
292. Why should we start and fear to die? (SS p. 316; T #286; J; TOS; PBHTB)
I. Watts (1674-1746) H.
293. Will they miss me GSSBH.
294. Years of time are swiftly passing (NBSB p. 144) - - - SBH.
295. Ye happy children (SS p. 329) - - - BH.
296. Ye nations all, on you I call (SS p. 322) Billups (?) (L)BH.
297. Ye pilgrims that are wandering home (G #236; SS p. 321; GOS) Harris (-)
298. Yes religion they can give CMH.
299. Yonder four-square a city lies BH.
300. You may sing of the beauties of mountains (G #218; T #448; PBHTB; OSH;
GOS) - - - H.
301. Young people all in blooming days (T #550) - -- SBH.
302. Your harps, ye trembling saints (G #60; T #63; PHBTB; GOS) Augustus M.
Toplady (1740-1778) H.